Onion is without doubt one of the hottest cultivated vegetable species. Onion belongs to the Amaryllidaceae household. Onion is a bulbous plant with bulbs and semi-cylindrical or tubular leaves with a waxy coating on the floor. Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, Haryana, West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, Jharkhand, and Telangana are the foremost Onion producing states in India.
Greatest season to develop Onions at dwelling in India
Onion rising time in India
India is the second largest Onion cultivating nation on the earth. Indian Onion varieties are well-known for his or her pungency and can be found all year long. Indian Onion has two crop cycles; the primary harvest begins from November to January, and the second harvest from January to Might.
Onion is a hardy cool-season biennial however is often grown as an annual crop. Onions have slim, hole leaves and a base that enlarges to type a bulb. The bulb will be white, yellow, or pink and takes 80 to 150 days to succeed in harvest. Onion is often grown solely every year in lots of states however not in Maharashtra.
Three crops are harvested in a 12 months within the largest Onion producing state. Attributable to this, the Onion costs within the nation are often fastened from right here. It’s grown right here in Kharif, post-Kharif, and Rabi seasons. Within the Kharif season, Onion sowing is finished within the month of July-August, which is occurring in lots of districts of Maharashtra lately. Onion crops sown within the Kharif season will attain the market in October-December.
Spring/Summer season Onion options
- Accessible in yellow, pink, and white from March to August.
- Recognizable by their skinny, light-colored pores and skin.
- They often have a excessive water content material, which shortens their shelf life and makes them extra inclined to damage.
- Candy to delicate taste, finest utilized in salads, sandwiches, and recent, flippantly cooked, or grilled dishes.
- Many specialty candy Onions are a part of this class and are bought beneath a selected commerce title. Some home and imported Onion varieties with these traits are provided at different instances of the 12 months.
Autumn/Winter Onion options
- Accessible from August to Might in yellow, pink, and white.
- They’re straightforward to search out by their a number of layers of thick, dark-colored pores and skin.
- Often low in water content material, they’ve an extended shelf life.
- Delicate to spicy in taste, good for savory dishes that require extra cooking time or taste.
Advisable varieties for various seasons and areas of the nation
|Varieties||Season & Area|
|Bhima Tremendous||Kharif – Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Punjab, Rajasthan, Chhattisgarh, Delhi, Haryana, Karnataka, Gujarat, and Tamil Nadu
Late Kharif – Gujarat, Karnataka, and Maharashtra
|Bhima Purple||Kharif – Haryana, Karnataka, Delhi, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Punjab, Rajasthan, and Tamil Nadu
Late Kharif – Gujarat, Karnataka, and Maharashtra
Rabi – Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra
|Bhima Darkish Purple||Kharif – Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Punjab, Rajasthan, Haryana, Karnataka, Chhattisgarh, Delhi, Gujarat, and Tamil Nadu|
|Bhima Raj||Kharif – Gujarat, Karnataka, and Maharashtra
Late Kharif – Gujarat, Karnataka, and Maharashtra
Rabi – Delhi, Gujarat, Haryana, and Rajasthan
||Late Kharif – Gujarat, Karnataka, and Maharashtra
Rabi – Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Delhi, Gujarat, Haryana, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Odisha, Punjab, and Uttar Pradesh
|Bhima Gentle Purple||Rabi – Karnataka and Tamil Nadu|
|Bhima Kiran||Rabi – Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Delhi, Haryana, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Punjab, and Uttar Pradesh|
|Bhima Shubra||Kharif – Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Karnataka, Odisha, Rajasthan, and Tamil Nadu
Late Kharif – Maharashtra
|Bhima Shweta||Kharif – Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Karnataka, Odisha, Rajasthan, and Tamil Nadu
Rabi – Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Delhi, Haryana, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Punjab, and Uttar Pradesh
|Bhima Safed||Kharif – Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Odisha, Rajasthan, and Tamil Nadu|
Local weather requirement and crop rotation time for finest Onion cultivation
Being a shallow-rooted crop, environment friendly and most utilization of all out there soil mineral vitamins is not possible. Unused vitamins will leach out and settle into the subsoil. Planting leguminous crops within the subsequent rising season will guarantee the usage of these vitamins. Thus, Onion and legume cropping sequence is beneficial for sustaining soil well being, optimum utilization of vitamins, and excessive yield.
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Onion cultivation is very best in subtropical, temperate, and tropical climates. Merely put, a light local weather that isn’t too wet, too chilly, or too sizzling is right for rising Onions. Nonetheless, Onion cultivation is finished in a selected season for higher outcomes. For instance, Onion bulbs are planted in winter, additional cultivated in late winter, and harvested earlier than the onset of summer season.
Bets time to begin Onion seeds indoors and outside
- Within the spring season, as quickly as the bottom will be labored, plant Onions outside, often in late March or April, when temperatures are unlikely to drop under -2°C.
- Within the spring, begin Onion seeds indoors (as soon as the soil is no less than 10°C) about six weeks earlier than planting within the floor.
- A fall-planted crop of Onions wants no less than 4 to six weeks of heat temperatures to get established within the floor. They’ll go dormant in chilly climate, however in early spring, the bulbs revive as temperatures and soil heat once more.
- Onions can develop in virtually all sorts of soil. Usually, the seeds are sown within the nursery, and the plant is transplanted after about 30-40 days. Earlier than transplanting, the sphere must be plowed correctly to do away with soil clods and undesirable particles. Vermicomposting (about 3 tons per acre) or poultry manure will be added. It’s accomplished throughout remaining plowing.
- After plowing, fields are leveled, and beds are ready. Relying on the season, beds will be flat or broad beds. Flatbeds are 1.5-2 meters broad and 4-6 meters lengthy. Huge beds have a top of 15 cm and a prime width of 120 cm. The depth of the furrows is 45 cm to realize the right spacing. Onion is grown in wide-bed furrows in the course of the Kharif season as it’s straightforward to empty extra water out of the furrows. It additionally facilitates aeration and reduces the incidence of anthracnose illness. If Onions are cultivated within the Rabi season, flat beds are made. Flatbeds for Kharif could cause waterlogging.
Three sowing seasons for Onion crop
Karnataka, Maharashtra, and Andhra Pradesh are the foremost Onion rising states in Kharif, whereas Rajasthan, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, and Uttar Pradesh are the 5 non-traditional Onion rising states. Kharif Onion space in Rajasthan could also be elevated to 24,500 hectares this 12 months from 22,295 hectares in the identical season final 12 months.
Kharif Onion space will be elevated from 7,250 hectares to 10,000 hectares in Haryana and 5,000 to five,500 hectares in Gujarat. Equally, the kharif Onion space in Madhya Pradesh might improve from 4,729 hectares a 12 months in the past to six,500 hectares this 12 months. In distinction, in Uttar Pradesh, it could improve from 4,000 to 4,500 hectares.
There are three sowing seasons for the Onion crop in India
- Kharif (planted between July-August and harvested in October-December);
- Late Kharif (planted between October-November and harvested in January-March); and
- Rabi (planted between December-January and harvested in March-Might).
Rabi 70%, Kharif 20%, and Late Kharif 10% share the entire Onion manufacturing. Sowing is a crucial course of for Onion cultivation as any change in seed charge, time of sowing, and methodology of sowing can considerably scale back the yield. So, care must be taken to undertake correct sowing practices. One of the best time for elevating the nursery is between the months of mid-October to November. Crops are prepared for transplanting from mid-December to mid-January. Choose wholesome vegetation of 10-15 cm top for transplanting.
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In Maharashtra, the seed for the early Kharif crop is sown in nurseries in early June and transplanted by late July. In distinction, regular Kharif Onion seed is sown in nurseries in late August and transplanted in mid-October.
Planting time for Onion crop in India
Onions are a cool-season crop, and temperatures can keep under freezing. They are often planted from seeds, small bulbs referred to as units or transplants. Planting seeds prices much less, however Onions take longer to mature. When planting Onions for bulbs, plant them ¼ inch deep from October via December.
House the seeds 1 inch aside. When the Onion vegetation are about 6 inches tall, skinny them to at least one plant each 2 to three inches. Eat additional greens like inexperienced Onions. In the event you use units or transplants, plant them ¾ inch deep and three inches aside (Photograph 1). Plant Onions no deeper than 1 inch.
Elevating seedlings and transplanting time to develop Onions
It’s the usual approach for irrigated cropping as a result of it ends in increased yields and bigger bulb sizes. Within the plains, seeds are sown throughout October-November for the Rabi crop. Within the hills, the seeds are sown from March to June. The seeds are first sown in well-prepared nursery beds of 90-120 cm in width, 7.5-10.0 cm in top, and acceptable size. The nursery space and most important discipline ratio are about 1:20.
The seed charge ranges from 8 to 10 kg per hectare. Crops with about 15 cm top and 0.8 cm neck diameter are good for transplanting, and that is achieved in aroud 8 weeks. Nonetheless, it varies from 6-10 weeks relying on the soil, local weather, and rainfall. It’s customary to prime the vegetation when transplanting if they’re overgrown.
Summer season / Rabi Onion Cultivation
Summer season / Rabi Onions are usually used for irrigated cropping, leading to increased yields with larger-sized bulbs. Seedlings are first grown within the nursery. October to November is beneficial as sowing time for India’s summer season/Rabi crop.
In Maharashtra, it’s transplanted from November to December. About 10 to 12 Kg of Onion seed is required to boost seedlings for one-hectare transplanting. The seeds are prepared for transplanting 45-60 days after sowing. Over-aged seedlings are inclined to bolt, taking longer to provoke new progress. Spacing 15 x 10 cm. (plant to row) is beneficial for optimum inhabitants and excessive yield.
Rabi is the one Onion crop that’s storable because of low humidity. Rabi season Onion sowing has began in Maharashtra, the biggest Onion producer. Rabi season Onion cultivation has virtually began in a number of districts of Marathwada, which have been worst affected by heavy rains. Three crops of Onion are grown in Maharashtra. It’s cultivated within the early Kharif, Kharif, and Rabi seasons.
Onion sowing within the Rabi season begins in October and November and continues until January. It takes about 4 months to provide this season’s Onions. That’s, it’s prepared between February and March. As per Rabi season, Onion seed sowing by some individuals, it comes out until April-Might. Equally, early Kharif is the seed sown in June-July and reaches until November.
Kharif season Onions are sown in August and September, which fall between December and January. However storage of each of them shouldn’t be doable. Stocking is finished just for Rabi season Onions. About 65% of Maharashtra’s whole Onion manufacturing is in the course of the Rabi season. Nashik, Pune, Solapur, Jalgaon, Dhule, Aurangabad, Beed, Osmanabad, Ahmednagar, and Satara districts are well-known for Onion farming.
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Within the Rabi season, Onions are planted as quickly as winter begins. After 1 to 2 months of planting, the climate turns into cool. A rise in temperature in the course of the flowering interval of Onion is taken into account favorable for its harvest. Onions thrive in medium to loamy soil with good drainage and are wealthy in natural matter. Making use of 40 to 50 tonnes of indigenous manure per hectare to this land will improve the yield.
Good Onion varieties for the rabi season
Baswant 780: This Onion selection is appropriate for Kharif and Rabi season and has deep pink coloration. These Onions develop in dimension in the course of the month. Any such plant matures in 100 to 120 days. The crop yield per hectare is about 250 to 300 quintals.
N-2-4-1: This Onion selection is appropriate for Rabi season and has a saffron coloration. Onions are medium spherical in form and preserve very nicely in storage. This Onion selection matures in 120 to 130 days. The Onion yield per hectare is 300 to 350 quintals. 10 kg seed per hectare is ample.
Onion rising in Kharif season
A Kharif crop usually requires 5-8 irrigations. One of the best Onion varieties for the Kharif season are;
Bhima Tremendous: A pink Onion selection is grown within the Kharif season in Chhattisgarh, Delhi, Gujarat, Haryana, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Odisha, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab, and Tamil Nadu. Its common yield in Kharif is 20 – 22 tonnes per hectare, and in late Kharif, 40 – 45 tonnes per hectare.
Bhima Darkish Purple: This Onion selection for Kharif season in Chhattisgarh, Delhi, Gujarat, Haryana, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Punjab, Rajasthan, and Tamil Nadu.
Bhima Purple: This selection is already beneficial for Rabi season in Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh; additionally it is beneficial for Kharif season in Delhi, Gujarat, Haryana, and Karnataka, Maharashtra, Punjab, Rajasthan, and Tamil Nadu.
Bhima Shweta: This selection is beneficial for Rabi season and Kharif in Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Rajasthan, and Tamil Nadu.
Bhima Shubhra: This white Onion selection is beneficial for the Kharif season for Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Rajasthan, and Tamil Nadu. It is suggested for late Kharif in Maharashtra.
Fertilizer necessities for rising Onion crops in several seasons
- Kharif season Onion – 100:50:50:50 kg NPKS/ha
- Late kharif Onion – 150:50:50:50 kg NPKS/ha
- Rabi season Onion – 150:50:80:50 kg NPKS/ha
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Sowing, transplanting, and harvesting time in several areas in India
|Place||Season||Time of seed sowing||Time of
|Time of harvest|
|Orissa and West Bengal||Kharif
components of Gujarat
Tamil Nadu, Karnataka
Onion yield in accordance with the season
- Onion (Kharif) – 15-20 tonnes/hectare
- Onion (Late Kharif) – 30-35 tonnes/hectare
- Onion (Rabi) – 25-30 tonnes/hectare
Ceaselessly requested questions on rising Onions
Can we develop Onions in summer season in India?
Summer season / Rabi Onions are usually used for irrigated cropping, leading to increased yields with bigger bulbs. Seedlings are first grown within the nursery. October to November is beneficial as sowing time for India’s summer season/rabi crop.
Can Onions survive the winter?
It’s a little-known undeniable fact that many seasoned gardeners aren’t conscious of: you may develop Onions (and shallots) within the winter. These extraordinarily hardy vegetation can survive extremely chilly temperatures with little safety and nonetheless present high quality bulbs after bolting within the spring.
How lengthy does it take to develop Onions?
Onion seeds are primarily out there all year long and are cheaper than units. Nonetheless, seeds take longer to germinate. Since Onions take a very long time to ripen, you can begin them indoors. The common progress charge of an Onion is 100 to 175 days to maturity.
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Can I plant Onions in June?
You’ll be able to plant Onions virtually any time of the 12 months (particularly if rising inexperienced Onions), however your timing will have an effect on the scale of the Onions you harvest and when to reap them. Onions will probably be prompted to the bulb when the day size in your space is getting the proper variety of sunlight hours for the range.
Onions are surprisingly straightforward to develop. They’re planted in early spring and harvested from mid-summer to fall. The above info is beneficial to find out about planting time within the Onion crop.
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